Banana is a monocotyledon, perennial, herbaceous succulent plant. Bananas are the world’s most productive fruit. Many research and publications show that the origin of banana is Malaysia but they are not sure about it. In Malaysia, the 1st commercial production of bananas was started. The scientific name of banana is Musa paradisicia. Banana has an Aerial pseudostem(a false one). and underground Rhizome( true Stem).In most cases, banana plants give fruit once in their life cycle, and then it will be like garbage.

Botany: a banana has a cymose type of inflorescence and flowers are borne in the cluster. In the initial stage, flowers are covered with bract called spathes, later they will drop down. The flower of banana is polygamous i.e. it has male, female and bisexual flowers. In the upper part of the inflorescence there will be female flowers, in the middle bisexual flower and at the end of the inflorescence male flowers are occurred. The ovary is superior to the banana flower. The fruit of a banana is called berry. Banana plants produce 60-70 leaves in their life cycle. The most commercially cultivated variety of bananas, Musa paradisiaca, is made by a cross between Musa acuminata and Musa bulbisiana. Acuminata is a desert banana which has a sweet taste and balbisiana is high in sugar.

Classification of banana:

1. According to the botany:

a)Dwarf Banana: Musa cavendish

Fig: Musa cavendish

b) Tall Banana: Musa sapientum

Fig: Tall Banana : Musa sapientum

c) Cooking Banana: Musa paradisicia

Fig: cooking banana

2. According to the cytogenetical prospect

a)Commercial Cultivars: Musa parasidiaca

b) Seeded Variety: Musa bulbisiana

c) Musa balbisiana + Musa acuminata = Musa sapientum

3. Based on uses

a) Dessert Banana: Malbhog, Gros Michel, Harichal, Poovan, Dwarf Cavendish, William Hybrid, G9

b) Cooking Banana:

i) For Vegetable: Dhusre,Charinagoe, Mantham

ii) For Chips: Nendran

iii) Flour: Kunnan

In the world banana has two genera Ensete and Musa, in which Musa is widely cultivated genus of banana.ensete is the old genus, originated in Asia to Africa and it has 6-7 species. And it is grown as a food crop but Musa is generally cultivated as the fruit crop.

Some varieties of banana are given below:

1.Malbhog( Rasthai):

    1. It is the local variety
    2. It is drought resistant
    3. It has 100-120 fingers per bunch on average
    4. It has good keeping quality
    5. Have low yield
    6. Resistant to the bunchy top virus

Fig: Malbhog

2.G9 (Giant Naine)

    1. It is suitable for the terai and mid-hill
    2. It is one of the dwarf bananas ( 4-5 ft)
    3. Have larger and longer fingers (150-300 gm, 50-60 Mt per ha)
    4. Have good keeping quality
    5. Fruit peel remains green after ripe
    6. 12-14 months requires fruiting
    7. Tolerance to the Panama wilt
    8. Give a higher yield than the malbhog

Fig: G9 (Giant Naine) banana

3.Dwarf cavendish ( basari dwarf):

    1. It is the world most dwarf banana plant
    2. Have large, curved fruit with thick skin
    3. Susceptible to the bunchy top and leaf spot diseases
    4. Resistance to the Panama wilt
    5. It Can grow in cold winter during the flowering stage
    6. Have poor keeping quality
    7. Have green flesh

Fig: dwarf-cavendish-banana

4.Robust (harichal)

    1. Almost similar to the Musa cavendish ( mother plant) except skin color
    2. Skin color doesn’t change even after ripening

Fig: Robust (harichal) banana

5.William hybrid:

    1. Develop from the cavendish banana
    2. It has 2.5-3 m in height
    3. It has 125-150 fingers per bunch
    4. It is resistant to Panama wilt but susceptible to the leaf spot
    5. It requires 12-18 months for the fruiting

Fig: williams-hybrid-banana

6.Poovan (champa)

    1. It is tall, hardy, and grow vigorously
    2. Have good keeping quality
    3. Resistant to the Panama wilt and fairly resistant to the bunchy top
    4. The trunk has a rose pink color

Fig: poovan, champa

7.Red Banana( AAA)

    1. All things are purplish-red
    2. Susceptible to the bunchy top, fusarium wilt, nematode, etc.

Fig: red banana

Local variety:


    1. Local
    2. Cold tolerant
    3. Grown in high altitude
    4. Have 80-100 fingers per bunch

Fig: dusre


    1. Local
    2. Cold tolerant
    3. Grown in high altitude
    4. 80-100 fingers per bunch

Fig: mungre

3.Hajari,jahaji marche :

    1. Local
    2. Grown in hills

Fig: jahaji

Climate and Soil:

The best temperature for banana cultivation is 23-27 degrees Celsius but we can grow bananas at the temperature 20-40 degree Celcius. Bananas have poor growth when the temperature is below 13 degrees Celsius.

The firing of leaves and choked throat occurs from the cold injury in the winter

Fig: Choked Throat

If the temperature goes above 39 degrees Celcius sun scorch in the leaves will happen.

Fig: Sun scorch in banana

Rainfall should be 200-250 cm and bananas grow in the world at the altitude of 1000m asl but in Nepal, bananas grow up to 1600 masl.

For bananas, the pH of the soil should be 5.5 to 7.


In bananas, propagation is done by seed, suckers, rhizome, tissue culture but commercial propagation is done through the sucker.

Incase of bananas there can be 4 types of suckers

1.Sword sucker:

    1. It has a narrow sword-like leaf blade
    2. It requires 11-12 months for the bunching
    3. It is poor in suckering
    4. But best sucker for the plantation in commercially

Fig: Sword Sucker

2.Water sucker:

    1. It has broad leaves
    2. It does not produce a healthy banana clump
    3. Require more than 15 months for bunching and flowering
    4. Not recommended for the planting

Fig: Water Sucker

3.Maiden sucker:

    1. It is large in size
    2. It is not  fruiting ratoon

Fig: Maiden sucker: of banana


    1. It is a very young sucker with scale leaves.

Fig: peppers sucker: of banana

The best age of suckers for planting is 3-4 months.

Season of planting

Banana can be planted any time of the year except in winter and heavy rain. Generally, maximum planting is done in June-July month. For planting, there is like a formula that is very easy to remember

One is 6,6,6, i.e. we have to plant the banana sucker with 6 leaves on the 6th of June. (Count the no. of June month it comes in 6)

Another is 8,8,8 i.e. we have to plant the banana sucker with 8 leaves on the 8th of August. (Count the no. of August month it comes in 8)

For planting, pit dimension should be 60 x60 x60 cm

Plant distance should be

  • for tall: 2.7 x 3 M
  • for dwarf: 1.8 x 1.8 M

for high-density planting (HDP) :

Monoculture at

  • 2 x 1.2 m for dwarf
  • 2 x2 m for tall
  • But in HDP fingertips disease is very problematic.


Weed can lose up to 60-70 % in production.

We can do weddings manually or chemically. Chemically by like diuron, simazine, etc.

Fig: Weed in banana Field

Flowering and Fruiting:

In bananas, flowering occurs after the 32-38 leaves. Bananas require 68-117 days to harvest from the flowering. 68 days for summer and 117 days for the winter and banana requires 8-12 months to harvest from the planting date.

Fig: Flowering and Fruiting

Harvesting :

90-120  days after shooting

Fig: Harvesting


15-20 t/ha in Nepal


In lower limit temperature; 11-13 degree Celcius and 85-90 % RH.

Fig: Banana Storage